Reference.HomePage History

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July 26, 2013, at 05:33 PM by Max - t2
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See the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Try the list of community-contributed code. The Arduino language is based on C/C++. It links against AVR Libc and allows the use of any of its functions; see its user manual for details.

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Beachten Sie die libraries page um mit bestimmten Arten von Hardware zu arbeiten. Versuchen sie es auf der Liste des community-contributed code. Die Arduino Sprache basiert auf C/C++. Sie verweist auf die AVR Libc und erlaubt die Nutzung aller ihrer Funktionen; Beachten sie dieBedienungsanleitung für mehr Informationen.

July 04, 2013, at 11:36 AM by Max - first translation
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Language Reference

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

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Sprach Referenz

Arduino Programme können in drei Hauptbestandteile unterteilt werden: Strukturen, Werte (Variablen und Konstanten) und Funktionen.

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Control Structures

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Kontroll Strukturen

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Further Syntax

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Weitere Syntax

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Arithmetic Operators

  • = (assignment operator)
  • (addition)
  • - (subtraction)
  • * (multiplication)
  • / (division)
  • % (modulo)

Comparison Operators

  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators

  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)
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Arithmetische Operatoren

  • = (Zuweisungs-Operator)
  • (Addition)
  • - (Subtraktion)
  • * (Multiplikation)
  • / (Division)
  • % (Modulo)

Vergleichs Operatoren

  • == (gleich)
  • != (nicht gleich)
  • < (kleiner als)
  • > (größer als)
  • <= (kleiner gleich oder gleich)
  • >= (größer als oder gleich)

Boolsche Operatoren

  • && (und)
  • || (oder)
  • ! (nicht)
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Constants

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Konstanten

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Data Types

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Datentypen

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Conversion

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Umwandlung

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Utilities

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Hilfsmittel

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Functions

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Funktionen

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Looking for something else?

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Sie suchen nach etwas Anderem?

December 04, 2012, at 03:51 PM by Katia De Coi -
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Digital I/O

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Digital I/O

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Analog I/O

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Analog I/O

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Due only

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Due only

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Advanced I/O

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Advanced I/O

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Time

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Time

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Math

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Math

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Trigonometry

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Trigonometry

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Random Numbers

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Random Numbers

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Bits and Bytes

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Bits and Bytes

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External Interrupts

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External Interrupts

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Interrupts

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Interrupts

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Communication

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Communication

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USB (Leonardo and Due only)

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USB (Leonardo and Due only)

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Looking for something else? See the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Try the list of community-contributed code. The Arduino language is based on C/C++. It links against AVR Libc and allows the use of any of its functions; see its user manual for details.

to:

Looking for something else?

See the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Try the list of community-contributed code. The Arduino language is based on C/C++. It links against AVR Libc and allows the use of any of its functions; see its user manual for details.

October 22, 2012, at 02:07 PM by Scott Fitzgerald -
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Leonardo Specific

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USB (Leonardo and Due only)

October 20, 2012, at 04:37 PM by Scott Fitzgerald -
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September 20, 2012, at 06:12 PM by Scott Fitzgerald -
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March 14, 2012, at 09:00 PM by Scott Fitzgerald -
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March 14, 2012, at 08:59 PM by Scott Fitzgerald - added input_pullup to constants
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December 07, 2011, at 01:41 AM by Scott Fitzgerald -
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Leonardo Specific

November 26, 2011, at 10:38 PM by David A. Mellis -
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March 11, 2011, at 06:34 PM by David A. Mellis - shiftIn()
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October 21, 2010, at 02:18 PM by David A. Mellis -
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  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)
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  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)
August 18, 2010, at 11:06 PM by David A. Mellis -
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  • string string as a character array
  • String String data object
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August 13, 2010, at 11:28 PM by Tom Igoe -
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  • string string as a character array
  • String String data object
August 12, 2010, at 01:18 AM by David A. Mellis -
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August 12, 2010, at 01:10 AM by David A. Mellis -
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August 12, 2010, at 01:09 AM by David A. Mellis -
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August 12, 2010, at 01:01 AM by David A. Mellis -
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August 12, 2010, at 01:01 AM by David A. Mellis -
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August 10, 2010, at 03:05 PM by David A. Mellis -
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August 10, 2010, at 03:04 PM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions. The Arduino language is based on C/C++.

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

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  • = (assignment operator)
  • (addition)
  • - (subtraction)
  • * (multiplication)
  • / (division)
  • % (modulo)
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Pointer Access Operators

Bitwise Operators

  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)
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  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)
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Data Types

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Variable Scope & Qualifiers

Utilities

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Bits and Bytes

External Interrupts

Interrupts

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Didn't find something? Check the extended reference or the libraries. Or see the list of community-contributed code.

to:

Looking for something else? See the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Try the list of community-contributed code. The Arduino language is based on C/C++. It links against AVR Libc and allows the use of any of its functions; see its user manual for details.

April 02, 2010, at 05:12 AM by David A. Mellis - changing to three columns
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Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, such as a sensor reading from an analog pin.

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Constants are particular values with specific meanings.

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Variables can have various types, which are described below.

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April 01, 2010, at 08:37 PM by David A. Mellis - removing return types
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April 01, 2010, at 08:37 PM by David A. Mellis - removing parameter names
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  • shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, bitOrder, value)
  • unsigned long pulseIn(pin, value)
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February 01, 2010, at 04:53 PM by David A. Mellis -
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January 09, 2010, at 06:36 PM by David A. Mellis -
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January 09, 2010, at 06:35 PM by David A. Mellis -
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December 23, 2009, at 11:49 PM by David A. Mellis -
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August 15, 2009, at 02:07 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Here's a style guide that helps with writing examples for beginners.

May 08, 2009, at 02:30 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Serial Communication

Used for communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. This communication happens via the Arduino board's serial or USB connection and on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Thus, if you use these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

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Communication

April 29, 2009, at 01:21 AM by Tom Igoe -
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Here's a style guide that helps with writing examples for beginners.

February 08, 2009, at 01:24 PM by David A. Mellis -
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February 08, 2009, at 01:19 PM by David A. Mellis -
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November 02, 2008, at 10:53 AM by David A. Mellis -
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October 20, 2008, at 11:24 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Didn't find something? Check the extended reference or the libraries.

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Didn't find something? Check the extended reference or the libraries. Or see the list of community-contributed code.

October 18, 2008, at 09:04 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Conversion

October 18, 2008, at 06:55 PM by Paul Badger -
October 11, 2008, at 10:50 PM by David A. Mellis -
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October 05, 2008, at 06:13 AM by Paul Badger -
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  • - (subtraction)
  • * (multiplication)
  • / (division)
  • % (modulo)
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October 05, 2008, at 05:32 AM by Paul Badger -
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October 04, 2008, at 01:38 PM by David A. Mellis -
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September 28, 2008, at 12:35 PM by David A. Mellis -
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''See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

September 27, 2008, at 04:19 PM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

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''See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

September 27, 2008, at 06:12 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the 'Learning / Foundations? page.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

September 27, 2008, at 06:11 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the 'Learning / Foundations? page.

September 26, 2008, at 03:53 PM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

September 26, 2008, at 03:53 PM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

September 26, 2008, at 03:52 PM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

September 26, 2008, at 03:52 PM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Further programming concepts may be found on the Learning / Foundations? page.

September 18, 2008, at 02:58 PM by David A. Mellis -
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September 18, 2008, at 02:56 PM by David A. Mellis -
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An Arduino program run in two parts:

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setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinModes, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

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September 06, 2008, at 09:22 PM by Paul Badger -
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July 02, 2008, at 10:11 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Arduino Reference

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Language Reference

May 07, 2008, at 09:40 PM by David A. Mellis -
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April 29, 2008, at 05:33 PM by David A. Mellis -
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''See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

April 29, 2008, at 05:33 PM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The foundations page? has extended descriptions of some hardware and software features.

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''See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

April 24, 2008, at 05:30 AM by David A. Mellis -
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March 31, 2008, at 01:24 PM by Paul Badger -
March 29, 2008, at 05:39 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Trigonometry

March 29, 2008, at 03:18 PM by David A. Mellis -
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  • map(value, fromLow, fromHigh, toLow, toHigh)
March 08, 2008, at 05:05 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The Foundations page? has extended descriptions of some hardware and software features.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The foundations page? has extended descriptions of some hardware and software features.

March 08, 2008, at 05:04 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The Foundations page? has extended descriptions of hardware and software features.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The Foundations page? has extended descriptions of some hardware and software features.

March 08, 2008, at 05:03 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The [[Tutorial/Foundations|Foundations page has extended descriptions of hardware and software features.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The Foundations page? has extended descriptions of hardware and software features.

March 08, 2008, at 05:03 AM by Paul Badger -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. The [[Tutorial/Foundations|Foundations page has extended descriptions of hardware and software features.

March 06, 2008, at 04:01 PM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

to:

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

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Didn't find something? Check the extended reference.

to:

Didn't find something? Check the extended reference or the libraries.

February 28, 2008, at 04:49 PM by David A. Mellis -
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November 24, 2007, at 07:42 AM by Paul Badger -
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November 24, 2007, at 07:39 AM by Paul Badger - test the summary feature
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November 05, 2007, at 10:44 AM by David A. Mellis -
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November 04, 2007, at 04:53 AM by Paul Badger -
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November 04, 2007, at 04:01 AM by Paul Badger -
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November 04, 2007, at 03:58 AM by Paul Badger -
November 04, 2007, at 03:58 AM by Paul Badger -
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September 01, 2007, at 06:05 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Arduino Reference (standard)

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Arduino Reference

September 01, 2007, at 05:46 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions. The Arduino language is based on C/C++.

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions. The Arduino language is based on C/C++.

September 01, 2007, at 05:46 AM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

September 01, 2007, at 05:45 AM by David A. Mellis -
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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

September 01, 2007, at 05:45 AM by David A. Mellis -
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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

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See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages.

September 01, 2007, at 05:44 AM by David A. Mellis -
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September 01, 2007, at 05:43 AM by David A. Mellis -
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September 01, 2007, at 05:43 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Didn't find something? Check the extended reference.

September 01, 2007, at 05:40 AM by David A. Mellis - removing things that only belong in the extended reference.
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Bitwise Operators

  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)
Deleted lines 69-71:
  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)
Deleted lines 97-109:

Variable Scope & Qualifiers

Utilities

  • cast (cast operator)
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Deleted lines 134-140:

External Interrupts

These functions allow you to trigger a function when the input to a pin changes value.

September 01, 2007, at 05:26 AM by David A. Mellis -
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September 01, 2007, at 05:25 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Arduino Reference (basic)

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Arduino Reference (standard)

September 01, 2007, at 05:24 AM by David A. Mellis -
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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

September 01, 2007, at 05:24 AM by David A. Mellis -
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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

September 01, 2007, at 05:24 AM by David A. Mellis -
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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

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September 01, 2007, at 05:23 AM by David A. Mellis -
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September 01, 2007, at 05:23 AM by David A. Mellis -
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For more advanced features of the Arduino language, see the extended reference.

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The extended reference covers more advanced features of the Arduino language.

September 01, 2007, at 05:22 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Arduino Reference

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Arduino Reference (basic)

For more advanced features of the Arduino language, see the extended reference.

September 01, 2007, at 05:19 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Constants are labels for certain values which are preset in the Arduino compiler. You do not need to define or initialize constants. Arduino includes the following pre-defined constants.

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Constants are particular values with specific meanings.

September 01, 2007, at 05:18 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, such as a sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

to:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, such as a sensor reading from an analog pin.

Constants

Constants are labels for certain values which are preset in the Arduino compiler. You do not need to define or initialize constants. Arduino includes the following pre-defined constants.

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Variables can have various types, which are described below.

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Constants

Constants are labels for certain values which are preset in the Arduino compiler. You do not need to define or initialize constants. Arduino includes the following pre-defined constants.

to:
September 01, 2007, at 04:46 AM by David A. Mellis - removing PROGMEM (doesn't belong in the basic reference)
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September 01, 2007, at 04:45 AM by David A. Mellis -
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In Arduino, the standard program entry point (main) is defined in the core and calls into two functions in a sketch. setup() is called once, then loop() is called repeatedly (until you reset your board).

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An Arduino program run in two parts:

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setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinModes, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

September 01, 2007, at 04:44 AM by David A. Mellis -
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An Arduino program run in two parts:

to:

In Arduino, the standard program entry point (main) is defined in the core and calls into two functions in a sketch. setup() is called once, then loop() is called repeatedly (until you reset your board).

Deleted lines 14-15:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinModes, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

August 23, 2007, at 09:24 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 15-16 from:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinMode, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

to:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinModes, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

August 23, 2007, at 09:19 PM by Paul Badger -
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Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

to:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, such as a sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

July 17, 2007, at 06:10 PM by Paul Badger -
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July 17, 2007, at 05:27 PM by Paul Badger -
July 17, 2007, at 05:27 PM by Paul Badger -
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July 17, 2007, at 01:36 PM by Paul Badger -
July 17, 2007, at 01:35 PM by Paul Badger -
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July 17, 2007, at 06:47 AM by Paul Badger -
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Further Syntax

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Further Syntax

July 17, 2007, at 06:05 AM by Paul Badger -
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July 17, 2007, at 04:42 AM by Paul Badger -
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July 17, 2007, at 04:41 AM by Paul Badger -
July 17, 2007, at 04:41 AM by Paul Badger -
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to:
July 16, 2007, at 12:56 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 31-36 from:
  • plus(addition)
  • -(subtraction)
  • *(multiplication)
  • /(division)
  • %(modulo)
to:
  • plus (addition)
  • - (subtraction)
  • * (multiplication)
  • / (division)
  • % (modulo)
July 16, 2007, at 12:55 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 63-69 from:
  • += (compound multiplication)
  • -= (compound division)

  • &= (bitwise and)
  • |= (bitwise or)

to:
  • *= (compound multiplication)
  • /= (compound division)

  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)

July 16, 2007, at 12:54 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 61-62 from:
  • += (compound increment)
  • -= (compound decrement)
to:
  • += (compound addition)
  • -= (compound subtraction)
  • += (compound multiplication)
  • -= (compound division)
July 16, 2007, at 12:12 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 60-62 from:
  • --? (decrement)
to:
  • -- (decrement)
  • += (compound increment)
  • -= (compound decrement)
July 16, 2007, at 11:48 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 60-64 from:
  • |? (decrement)
  • (bitwise and)
  • (bitwise or)

to:
  • --? (decrement)
  • &= (bitwise and)
  • |= (bitwise or)

July 16, 2007, at 11:46 AM by Paul Badger -
Added lines 58-64:

Compound Operators

  • ++ (increment)
  • |? (decrement)
  • (bitwise and)
  • (bitwise or)

June 12, 2007, at 01:57 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 91-92 from:
to:
May 29, 2007, at 09:34 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 85-86 from:

Variable Scope

to:

Variable Scope & Qualifiers

Changed lines 90-91 from:
to:
May 28, 2007, at 08:50 PM by Paul Badger -
Added line 72:
May 27, 2007, at 02:41 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 106-107 from:
to:
May 27, 2007, at 02:41 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 106-107 from:
to:
May 26, 2007, at 02:08 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 26 from:
to:
May 26, 2007, at 02:07 PM by Paul Badger -
Added line 26:
May 26, 2007, at 01:36 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 26-28 from:
to:
May 18, 2007, at 05:36 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 85-86 from:
to:
May 17, 2007, at 06:51 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 4-5 from:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions. The Arduino language is based on C/C++.

May 17, 2007, at 06:09 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 110-111 from:
to:
May 17, 2007, at 06:08 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 110-111 from:
  • pullup resistors
to:
May 17, 2007, at 06:08 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 110-111 from:
to:
  • pullup resistors
May 04, 2007, at 01:01 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 83-85 from:
  • Variable scope
  • Static
to:
May 04, 2007, at 01:00 PM by Paul Badger -
Added lines 80-85:

Variable Scope

  • Variable scope
  • Static
April 29, 2007, at 12:06 PM by David A. Mellis - math.h isn't supported, so don't document it here.
Changed lines 123-124 from:
to:
April 29, 2007, at 12:03 PM by David A. Mellis - API changes (including exposing internal registers) should be discussed on the developers list
Changed lines 54-55 from:
to:
Changed lines 96-98 from:
to:
April 28, 2007, at 05:18 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 126-127 from:
  • math.h(math.h - trig,sqrt,pow etc.)
to:
April 28, 2007, at 05:18 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 126-127 from:
  • math?(math.h - trig,sqrt,pow etc.)
to:
  • math.h(math.h - trig,sqrt,pow etc.)
April 28, 2007, at 05:17 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 126-127 from:
to:
  • math?(math.h - trig,sqrt,pow etc.)
April 28, 2007, at 05:08 AM by Paul Badger -
Added line 77:
April 28, 2007, at 05:06 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 125-126 from:
to:
April 28, 2007, at 04:25 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 125-126 from:
to:
April 26, 2007, at 04:34 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 86-87 from:
to:
April 26, 2007, at 04:31 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 86-87 from:
to:
Changed line 90 from:
  • cast(cast operator)
to:
  • cast (cast operator)
April 26, 2007, at 04:24 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 62-63 from:
to:
April 26, 2007, at 03:58 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 62-63 from:
to:
April 24, 2007, at 05:32 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 54-55 from:
to:
Changed lines 97-98 from:
to:
April 24, 2007, at 07:58 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 96-97 from:
to:
April 24, 2007, at 07:57 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 91-92 from:

Reference

to:

Reference

April 24, 2007, at 07:29 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 96-97 from:
to:
April 24, 2007, at 05:29 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 94-96 from:
to:
April 18, 2007, at 03:49 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 50 from:
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
to:
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
April 18, 2007, at 06:22 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 93-94 from:
to:
April 18, 2007, at 06:21 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 93-94 from:
to:
April 18, 2007, at 06:11 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 91-94 from:
to:

Reference

April 18, 2007, at 04:08 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 50 from:
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
to:
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
April 18, 2007, at 03:49 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 51 from:
  • ~ (bitwise not)
to:
  • ~ (bitwise not)
April 18, 2007, at 03:31 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 48-49 from:
  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
to:
  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
April 16, 2007, at 06:15 PM by Paul Badger -
Added line 71:
Added line 73:
April 16, 2007, at 06:02 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 2-3 from:

Arduino Reference

to:

Arduino Reference

April 16, 2007, at 09:02 AM by David A. Mellis -
Added lines 66-67:

Data Types

Changed lines 75-77 from:
to:
Changed lines 84-85 from:
to:

Utilities

April 16, 2007, at 08:56 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 28 from:
to:
April 16, 2007, at 08:55 AM by David A. Mellis -
Changed line 28 from:
to:
Changed lines 48-51 from:
  • & (and)
  • | (or)
  • ^ (xor)
  • ~ (not)
to:
  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
April 16, 2007, at 07:22 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 52-54 from:
to:
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)
April 16, 2007, at 07:19 AM by Paul Badger -
April 16, 2007, at 06:47 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 51-52 from:
  • ! (not)
to:
  • ~ (not)
April 16, 2007, at 06:35 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 42 from:

Boolean Operations

to:

Boolean Operators

Changed line 47 from:

Bitwise Operations

to:

Bitwise Operators

April 16, 2007, at 06:34 AM by Paul Badger -
Added lines 47-52:

Bitwise Operations

  • & (and)
  • | (or)
  • ^ (xor)
  • ! (not)
April 16, 2007, at 06:31 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 66-67 from:
to:
April 15, 2007, at 11:40 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 66-67 from:
to:
April 15, 2007, at 11:17 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 65-66 from:
to:
  • cast(cast operator)
April 15, 2007, at 10:05 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 28-31 from:
to:
  • plus(addition)
  • -(subtraction)
  • *(multiplication)
  • /(division)
April 15, 2007, at 09:58 PM by Paul Badger -
April 15, 2007, at 09:55 PM by Paul Badger -
April 15, 2007, at 09:49 PM by Paul Badger -
Changed lines 28-31 from:
to:
April 15, 2007, at 09:47 PM by Paul Badger -
April 15, 2007, at 09:47 PM by Paul Badger -
Added lines 28-31:
April 14, 2007, at 06:27 AM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 28-29 from:
  • %(modulo)
to:
  • %(modulo)
April 14, 2007, at 06:20 AM by Paul Badger -
April 14, 2007, at 06:18 AM by Paul Badger -
April 14, 2007, at 06:17 AM by Paul Badger -
April 14, 2007, at 05:53 AM by David A. Mellis - moving % (modulo) the left column under "arithmetic operators"; keeping the right col. for functions
Changed lines 15-16 from:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you woiuld set pinMode, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

to:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you would set pinMode, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

Added lines 27-29:

Arithmetic Operators

  • %(modulo)
Deleted line 93:
  • %(modulo)
April 14, 2007, at 05:50 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 91 from:
to:
  • %(modulo)
April 14, 2007, at 05:00 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 91 from:
  • % (modulo)
to:
April 14, 2007, at 04:49 AM by Paul Badger -
Changed line 91 from:
to:
  • % (modulo)
December 26, 2006, at 01:25 AM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 4-6 from:

Arduino provides a library of functions on top of the standard AVR C/C++ routines. The main file of your sketch is compiled as C++, but you can add straight C files as well.

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: program structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

Changed lines 8-11 from:

Program Structure

Getting Started

to:

Structure

Added line 52:
Changed lines 65-66 from:
to:
Changed lines 75-77 from:
to:
Changed lines 81-85 from:

Handling Time

to:

Advanced I/O

  • shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, bitOrder, value)
  • unsigned long pulseIn(pin, value)

Time

Changed lines 90-93 from:

Random number generation

New in Arduino 0005.

to:

Math

Random Numbers

Added lines 103-109:

External Interrupts

These functions allow you to trigger a function when the input to a pin changes value.

Changed lines 115-116 from:
to:
Deleted lines 120-137:

Old serial library (deprecated).

Expert/Internal Functions

  • avr-libc is the standard library of C functions that Arduino builds on. To use these, you may need to add the corresponding #include statement to the top of your sketch.
November 12, 2006, at 06:51 PM by David A. Mellis - removing bit about floats not being supported
Changed lines 52-53 from:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below. Floating point variables and operations are not currently supported.

to:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

Added line 57:
November 04, 2006, at 08:19 PM by David A. Mellis -
Deleted lines 5-6:

If you're used to Processing or Java, please check out the Arduino/Processing language comparison.

November 04, 2006, at 08:18 PM by David A. Mellis -
Deleted lines 123-137:

Libraries

These are the "official" libraries that are included in the Arduino distribution. They are compatible with the Wiring versions, and the links below point to the (excellent) Wiring documentation.

  • Matrix - Basic LED Matrix display manipulation library
  • Sprite - Basic image sprite manipulation library for use in animations with an LED matrix
  • Wire - Two Wire Interface for sending and receiving data over a net of devices or sensors.

These are not (yet) included with the Arduino distribution and may change.

October 21, 2006, at 10:32 PM by David A. Mellis - adding link to metro library
Added lines 137-138:
  • Metro
October 21, 2006, at 10:07 PM by David A. Mellis - adding libraries included in the distribution
Added lines 126-131:

These are the "official" libraries that are included in the Arduino distribution. They are compatible with the Wiring versions, and the links below point to the (excellent) Wiring documentation.

  • Matrix - Basic LED Matrix display manipulation library
  • Sprite - Basic image sprite manipulation library for use in animations with an LED matrix
  • Wire - Two Wire Interface for sending and receiving data over a net of devices or sensors.
October 20, 2006, at 06:57 PM by Tom Igoe -
Added line 130:
October 01, 2006, at 10:55 PM by David A. Mellis - adding libraries
Added lines 123-129:

Libraries

These are not (yet) included with the Arduino distribution and may change.

  • Simple Message System
  • LCD Library
September 05, 2006, at 03:58 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 4-5 from:

These are the basics about the Arduino language, which implemented in C. If you're used to Processing or Java, please check out the Arduino/Processing language comparison.

to:

Arduino provides a library of functions on top of the standard AVR C/C++ routines. The main file of your sketch is compiled as C++, but you can add straight C files as well.

If you're used to Processing or Java, please check out the Arduino/Processing language comparison.

August 27, 2006, at 05:58 PM by David A. Mellis -
Added lines 81-93:

Handling Time

Random number generation

New in Arduino 0005.

Changed lines 118-122 from:

Handling Time

to:
August 26, 2006, at 11:07 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed line 1 from:
to:
August 26, 2006, at 11:07 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 1-2 from:
to:
August 26, 2006, at 11:07 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 1-2 from:

Arduino Reference

to:
August 01, 2006, at 07:55 PM by David A. Mellis - Adding string and array.
Changed lines 56-58 from:
to:
August 01, 2006, at 02:18 PM by David A. Mellis -
Added lines 30-31:
  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
August 01, 2006, at 02:17 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 30-34 from:
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)
to:
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)
August 01, 2006, at 02:04 PM by David A. Mellis - adding comparison and boolean operators
Added lines 29-39:

Comparison Operators

  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operations

  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)
July 09, 2006, at 02:47 PM by David A. Mellis - adding link to avr-libc
Added lines 93-95:

Expert/Internal Functions

  • avr-libc is the standard library of C functions that Arduino builds on. To use these, you may need to add the corresponding #include statement to the top of your sketch.
May 29, 2006, at 12:03 AM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 38-39 from:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below. Warning: floating point variables and operations are not currently supported.

to:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below. Floating point variables and operations are not currently supported.

Changed lines 67-68 from:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. This communication happens via the Arduino board's serial or USB connection and on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Thus, if you use these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

to:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. This communication happens via the Arduino board's serial or USB connection and on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Thus, if you use these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

May 29, 2006, at 12:01 AM by David A. Mellis - clarifying serial communication
Changed lines 67-68 from:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection. This communication happens on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). This means that these functions can be used to communicate with a serial device on those pins, but also that any digital i/o on pins 0 and 1 will interfere with this communication.

to:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. This communication happens via the Arduino board's serial or USB connection and on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Thus, if you use these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

May 28, 2006, at 11:55 PM by David A. Mellis -
Changed lines 67-68 from:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection. Or used for serial communication on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Note: if you are using these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

to:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection. This communication happens on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). This means that these functions can be used to communicate with a serial device on those pins, but also that any digital i/o on pins 0 and 1 will interfere with this communication.

May 28, 2006, at 11:52 PM by David A. Mellis - serial notes
Changed lines 67-68 from:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection (both appear as serial ports to software on the computer). Or used for serial communication on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX).

to:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection. Or used for serial communication on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Note: if you are using these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital i/o.

Old serial library (deprecated).

Deleted lines 88-96:

Serial Library as of version 0004

April 19, 2006, at 01:45 PM by David A. Mellis - Clarifying serial communication (USB or serial)
Added lines 66-68:

Used for communication between the Arduino board and the computer, via the USB or serial connection (both appear as serial ports to software on the computer). Or used for serial communication on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX).

April 17, 2006, at 01:47 PM by Massimo Banzi -
April 14, 2006, at 02:49 PM by David A. Mellis - Adding pulseIn()
Changed lines 59-60 from:
to:
March 31, 2006, at 02:19 PM by Clay Shirky -
Changed line 5 from:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: program structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: program structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

Changed lines 17-18 from:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you initialize variables?, set pinMode, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

to:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you woiuld set pinMode, initialize serial communication, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

March 31, 2006, at 01:02 PM by Clay Shirky -
Added lines 11-13:

An Arduino program run in two parts:

Added lines 16-18:

setup() is preparation, and loop() is execution. In the setup section, always at the top of your program, you initialize variables?, set pinMode, etc. The loop section is the code to be executed -- reading inputs, triggering outputs, etc.

Changed lines 21-22 from:

Further Syntax

to:

Control Structures

Added lines 28-29:

Further Syntax

March 31, 2006, at 12:48 PM by Clay Shirky -
Changed line 5 from:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts:

to:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: program structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

March 31, 2006, at 11:39 AM by David A. Mellis - Clarifying analogWrite == pwm
Changed line 46 from:

Digital Pins

to:

Digital I/O

Changed line 51 from:

Analog Pins

to:

Analog I/O

Changed lines 53-54 from:
to:
March 31, 2006, at 04:02 AM by Tom Igoe -
Changed line 17 from:
to:
March 31, 2006, at 04:01 AM by Tom Igoe -
Added line 17:
March 28, 2006, at 11:19 AM by David A. Mellis - Changed "Define" to "#define"
Changed lines 24-25 from:
to:
March 27, 2006, at 09:10 PM by Tom Igoe -
Changed lines 24-25 from:
to:
Changed lines 35-36 from:

Another form of variables are constants, which are preset variables that you do not need to define or initialize.

to:

Constants are labels for certain values which are preset in the Arduino compiler. You do not need to define or initialize constants. Arduino includes the following pre-defined constants.

Changed lines 40-53 from:

Finally, defines are a useful C component that allow you to specify something before it is compiled.

Defines

You can define numbers in arduino that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

#define constantName value

Note that the # is necessary. For example:

#define ledPin 3

The compiler will replace any mentions of ledPin with the value 3 at compile time.

to:
March 27, 2006, at 08:56 PM by Tom Igoe -
March 27, 2006, at 08:28 PM by Tom Igoe -
Changed lines 83-87 from:
to:
March 27, 2006, at 08:23 PM by Tom Igoe -
Changed lines 82-83 from:
to:
March 27, 2006, at 08:19 PM by Tom Igoe -
Changed lines 81-82 from:
to:
March 27, 2006, at 08:14 PM by Tom Igoe -
Added lines 79-81:

Serial Library as of version 0004

March 26, 2006, at 10:21 PM by Jeff Gray -
Changed line 18 from:
to:
March 26, 2006, at 10:21 PM by Jeff Gray -
Added line 18:
March 26, 2006, at 07:29 PM by Jeff Gray -
Deleted line 5:
March 25, 2006, at 09:21 PM by Jeff Gray -
Changed lines 9-10 from:

Program Structure

to:

Program Structure

Changed lines 25-26 from:

Variables

to:

Variables

Changed lines 54-55 from:

Functions

to:

Functions

March 25, 2006, at 09:20 PM by Jeff Gray -
Changed lines 7-8 from:
to:
Changed line 53 from:
to:
March 25, 2006, at 09:19 PM by Jeff Gray -
Changed lines 7-8 from:
to:
Changed line 53 from:
to:
Changed line 83 from:
to:
March 25, 2006, at 09:17 PM by Jeff Gray -
Added lines 7-8:
Added line 53:
Added line 83:
March 25, 2006, at 07:20 AM by Jeff Gray -
March 25, 2006, at 12:46 AM by Jeff Gray -
Changed lines 41-42 from:

You can define constants in arduino, that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

to:

You can define numbers in arduino that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

March 25, 2006, at 12:45 AM by Jeff Gray -
Added line 31:

Constants

Changed lines 39-40 from:

Defines

to:

Defines

March 25, 2006, at 12:44 AM by Jeff Gray -
Added lines 36-49:

Finally, defines are a useful C component that allow you to specify something before it is compiled.

Defines

You can define constants in arduino, that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

#define constantName value

Note that the # is necessary. For example:

#define ledPin 3

The compiler will replace any mentions of ledPin with the value 3 at compile time.

Deleted lines 78-91:

Creating New Functions

Defines

You can define constants in arduino, that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

#define constantName value

Note that the # is necessary. For example:

#define ledPin 3

The compiler will replace any mentions of ledPin with the value 3 at compile time.

March 25, 2006, at 12:42 AM by Jeff Gray -
Added lines 31-35:

Another form of variables are constants, which are preset variables that you do not need to define or initialize.

Deleted lines 65-69:

Constants

March 24, 2006, at 11:46 PM by Jeff Gray -
Added lines 5-6:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts:

Changed lines 9-11 from:

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts:

to:

Getting Started

Added lines 12-14:
February 09, 2006, at 03:25 PM by 85.18.81.162 -
Changed lines 22-23 from:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

to:

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below. Warning: floating point variables and operations are not currently supported.

January 20, 2006, at 05:44 PM by 85.18.81.162 -
Changed lines 3-6 from:

These are the basics about the arduino language.

to:

These are the basics about the Arduino language, which implemented in C. If you're used to Processing or Java, please check out the Arduino/Processing language comparison.

January 08, 2006, at 07:46 PM by 82.186.237.10 -
Changed lines 53-54 from:
to:
January 03, 2006, at 10:35 AM by 82.186.237.10 -
Deleted lines 65-79:

Writing Comments

Comments are parts in the program that are used to inform about the way the program works. They are not going to be compiled, nor will be exported to the processor. They are useful for you to understand what a certain program you downloaded is doing or to inform to your colleagues about what one of its lines is. There are two different ways of marking a line as a comment:

  • you could use a double-slash in the beginning of a line: //
  • you could use a combination of slash-asterisk --> asterisk-slash encapsulating your comments: /* blabla */

Tip When experimenting with code the ability of commenting parts of your program becomes very useful for you to "park" part of the code for a while.

December 30, 2005, at 12:41 PM by 82.186.237.10 -
Deleted lines 6-9:

Variables

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin.

Added lines 22-29:

Variables

Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin. They can have various types, which are described below.

December 29, 2005, at 03:08 PM by 82.186.237.10 -
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Defines

You can define constants in arduino, that don't take up any program memory space on the chip. Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:

#define constantName value

Note that the # is necessary. For example:

#define ledPin 3

The compiler will replace any mentions of ledPin with the value 3 at compile time.

December 09, 2005, at 06:39 PM by 195.178.229.25 -
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These are the functions available in the arduino language

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These are the basics about the arduino language.

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  • variable declaration
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  • HIGH | LOW
  • INPUT | OUTPUT
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Digital Pins

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Digital Pins

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Analog Pins

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Analog Pins

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Serial Communication

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Serial Communication

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Handling Time

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Handling Time

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Digital Pins

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Analog Pins

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Serial Communication

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Handling Time

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Constants

  • HIGH | LOW
  • INPUT | OUTPUT
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Creating New Functions

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Variables are expressions that you can use in programs to store values, like e.g. sensor reading from an analog pin.

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Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts:

  • variable declaration
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Writing Comments

Comments are parts in the program that are used to inform about the way the program works. They are not going to be compiled, nor will be exported to the processor. They are useful for you to understand what a certain program you downloaded is doing or to inform to your colleagues about what one of its lines is. There are two different ways of marking a line as a comment:

  • you could use a double-slash in the beginning of a line: //
  • you could use a combination of slash-asterisk --> asterisk-slash encapsulating your comments: /* blabla */

Tip When experimenting with code the ability of commenting parts of your program becomes very useful for you to "park" part of the code for a while.

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  • void printMode(int mode)
  • void printByte(unsigned char c)
  • void printString(unsigned char *s)
  • void printInteger(int n)
  • void printHex(unsigned int n)
  • void printOctal(unsigned int n)
  • void printBinary(unsigned int n)
  • unsigned long millis()
  • void delay(unsigned long ms)
  • void delayMicroseconds(unsigned long us)
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  • void digitalWrite(int pin, int val)
  • int digitalRead(int pin)
  • int analogRead(int pin)
  • void analogWrite(int pin, int val)
  • void beginSerial(int baud)
  • void serialWrite(unsigned char c)
  • int serialAvailable()
  • int serialRead()
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Program Structure

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Variables

Functions

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Arduino Reference

These are the functions available in the arduino language

  • void pinMode(int pin, int mode)
  • void digitalWrite(int pin, int val)
  • int digitalRead(int pin)
  • int analogRead(int pin)
  • void analogWrite(int pin, int val)
  • void beginSerial(int baud)
  • void serialWrite(unsigned char c)
  • int serialAvailable()
  • int serialRead()
  • void printMode(int mode)
  • void printByte(unsigned char c)
  • void printString(unsigned char *s)
  • void printInteger(int n)
  • void printHex(unsigned int n)
  • void printOctal(unsigned int n)
  • void printBinary(unsigned int n)
  • unsigned long millis()
  • void delay(unsigned long ms)
  • void delayMicroseconds(unsigned long us)

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