Main.ArduinoBoardLilyPad History

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May 28, 2013, at 12:49 PM by Alberto Cicchi -
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February 05, 2013, at 01:17 AM by Leah Buechley -
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November 23, 2012, at 05:35 PM by Roberto Guido -
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Schematic: LilyPad_schematic_v18.pdf

EAGLE (CAD) Files: LilyPad_Board_v18.zip

November 23, 2012, at 05:23 PM by Roberto Guido -
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November 23, 2012, at 05:21 PM by Roberto Guido - added comments box on bottom
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October 03, 2011, at 03:06 PM by Federico -
October 03, 2011, at 03:05 PM by Federico -
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October 03, 2011, at 03:03 PM by Federico -
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Schematic: LilyPad_schematic_v18.pdf

EAGLE (CAD) Files: LilyPad_Board_v18.zip

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October 03, 2011, at 03:01 PM by Federico -
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September 24, 2011, at 12:38 AM by Davide Gomba -
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September 17, 2011, at 01:53 PM by Scott Fitzgerald - mirror dev
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SparkFun Electronics has a range of accessories for use with the LilyPad Arduino.

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SparkFun Electronics has a range of accessories for use with the LilyPad Arduino.

June 09, 2009, at 02:21 AM by Leah Buechley -
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The ATmega168V or ATmega328V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. The bootloader on the most recent LilyPad boards is Limor Fried's "no wait" bootloader. When the LilyPad is supplied with power, its Arduino sketch starts immediately. The bootloader is triggered only when the reset switch is pressed. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The ATmega168V or ATmega328V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

June 09, 2009, at 02:11 AM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet). The LilyPad Arduino was designed and developed by Leah Buechley and SparkFun Electronics.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet) or the ATmega328V (datasheet). The LilyPad Arduino was designed and developed by Leah Buechley and SparkFun Electronics.

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MicrocontrollerATmega168V
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MicrocontrollerATmega168V or ATmega328V
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The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. The bootloader on the most recent LilyPad boards is Limor Fried's "no wait" bootloader. When the LilyPad is supplied with power, its Arduino sketch starts immediately. The bootloader is triggered only when the reset switch is pressed. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The ATmega168V or ATmega328V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. The bootloader on the most recent LilyPad boards is Limor Fried's "no wait" bootloader. When the LilyPad is supplied with power, its Arduino sketch starts immediately. The bootloader is triggered only when the reset switch is pressed. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

November 16, 2008, at 12:18 PM by David A. Mellis -
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Schematic & Reference Design

LilyPad_schematic_v18.pdf

LilyPad_Board_v18.zip

to:

Downloads

Schematic: LilyPad_schematic_v18.pdf

EAGLE (CAD) Files: LilyPad_Board_v18.zip

November 16, 2008, at 12:17 PM by David A. Mellis -
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November 16, 2008, at 12:16 PM by David A. Mellis -
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August 11, 2008, at 06:03 PM by Leah Buechley -
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August 08, 2008, at 06:46 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. The bootloader on the most recent LilyPad boards is Limor Fried's "no wait" bootloader. When the LilyPad is supplied with power, its Arduino sketch starts immediately. The bootloader is triggered only when the reset switch is pressed. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

August 08, 2008, at 06:34 PM by Leah Buechley -
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August 08, 2008, at 06:29 PM by Leah Buechley -
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August 08, 2008, at 06:29 PM by Leah Buechley -
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August 08, 2008, at 06:25 PM by Leah Buechley -
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August 08, 2008, at 06:25 PM by Leah Buechley -
August 08, 2008, at 06:21 PM by Leah Buechley -
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May 27, 2008, at 06:55 PM by Leah Buechley -
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SparkFun Electronics has a range of accessories for use with the LilyPad Arduino.

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SparkFun Electronics has a range of accessories for use with the LilyPad Arduino.

May 13, 2008, at 01:44 AM by David A. Mellis -
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Schematic

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Schematic & Reference Design

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March 08, 2008, at 07:42 PM by David A. Mellis - 10.0 -> 0010
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The LilyPad Arduino can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). *Note*, the LilyPad Arduino should only be programmed with software versions 10.0 or higher. You can program it with earlier versions, but all of the time related functions will be off (twice as slow as they should be).

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The LilyPad Arduino can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). *Note*, the LilyPad Arduino should only be programmed with software versions 0010 or higher. You can program it with earlier versions, but all of the time related functions will be off (twice as slow as they should be).

February 19, 2008, at 04:04 PM by Leah Buechley -
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February 19, 2008, at 04:04 PM by Leah Buechley -
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February 18, 2008, at 05:01 PM by David A. Mellis -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet). The LilyPad Arduino was designed and developed by Leah Buechley and SparkFun electronics.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet). The LilyPad Arduino was designed and developed by Leah Buechley and SparkFun Electronics.

February 18, 2008, at 05:01 PM by David A. Mellis -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet).

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet). The LilyPad Arduino was designed and developed by Leah Buechley and SparkFun electronics.

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To get your LilyPad Arduino working, see this guide.

to:

To get your LilyPad Arduino working, see this guide.

SparkFun Electronics has a range of accessories for use with the LilyPad Arduino.

January 31, 2008, at 01:37 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:37 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:11 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:11 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:10 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:09 AM by Leah Buechley -
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January 31, 2008, at 01:09 AM by Leah Buechley -
October 02, 2007, at 12:01 AM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). *Note*, the LilyPad Arduino should only be programmed with software versions 10.0 or higher. You can program it with earlier versions, but all of the time related functions will be off (twice as slow as they should be).

The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

October 01, 2007, at 11:34 PM by Leah Buechley -
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September 30, 2007, at 05:00 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The shape of the board allows the controller to be easily sewn to fabric. Here's a photo showing how that works:

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September 30, 2007, at 04:58 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The shape of the board allows the controller to be easily sewn to fabric. Here's a photo showing how that works:

September 28, 2007, at 09:39 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a circle, approximately 50mm (2") in diameter and 3mm (1/8") thick.

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The LilyPad Arduino is a circle, approximately 50mm (2") in diameter. The board itself is .8mm (1/32") thick (approximately 3mm (1/8") where electronics are attached).

September 27, 2007, at 09:16 PM by Leah Buechley -
September 27, 2007, at 09:08 PM by Leah Buechley -
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To get your Arduino Mini working, see this guide.

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To get your LilyPad Arduino working, see this guide.

September 27, 2007, at 09:06 PM by Leah Buechley -
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If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 2.7 and 5.5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Again, don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5.5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 2.7 and 5.5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Again, don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5.5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

September 27, 2007, at 09:04 PM by Leah Buechley -
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Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5.5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

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Operating Voltage3-5 V
Input Voltage3-5 V
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Operating Voltage2.7-5.5 V
Input Voltage2.7-5.5 V
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If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Again, don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 2.7 and 5.5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Again, don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5.5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

September 27, 2007, at 08:58 PM by Leah Buechley -
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September 27, 2007, at 08:57 PM by Leah Buechley -
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September 27, 2007, at 08:56 PM by Leah Buechley -
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September 22, 2007, at 05:53 PM by Leah Buechley -
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To get your Arduino Mini working, see this guide.

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To get your Arduino Mini working, see this guide.

September 22, 2007, at 05:52 PM by Leah Buechley -
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Wash at your own risk - we do ;). We recommend washing projects by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

to:

Wash at your own risk - we do ;). We recommend washing projects by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

More Information

To get your Arduino Mini working, see this guide.

September 22, 2007, at 05:27 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet).

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet).

September 22, 2007, at 05:23 PM by Leah Buechley -
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Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

September 22, 2007, at 05:22 PM by Leah Buechley -
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Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

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The Arduino Diecimila can be programmed with the Arduino software (download).

The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

September 22, 2007, at 05:20 PM by Leah Buechley -
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Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

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If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

to:

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Again, don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

Changed line 47 from:

Wash at your own risk - we do ;). We recommend washing garments you build with the LilyPad Arduino by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

to:

Wash at your own risk - we do ;). We recommend washing projects by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

September 22, 2007, at 05:18 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The ATmega168 on the Arduino Diecimila comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. Like with the Arduino Diecimila, you can bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The ATmega168V on the Arduino LilyPad comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

September 22, 2007, at 05:16 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168V (datasheet).

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168V (the low-power version of the ATmega168) (datasheet).

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Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

Changed lines 29-30 from:

Like with the Arduino Diecimila, you can bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

to:

The Arduino Diecimila can be programmed with the Arduino software (download).

The ATmega168 on the Arduino Diecimila comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it with the Arduino software. Like with the Arduino Diecimila, you can bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

Changed lines 35-38 from:

The LilyPad Arduino can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply.

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

Changed line 45 from:

Wash at your own risk--we do ;). We recommend washing garments you build with the LilyPad Arduino by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

to:

Wash at your own risk - we do ;). We recommend washing garments you build with the LilyPad Arduino by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

September 22, 2007, at 05:12 PM by Leah Buechley -
Changed lines 7-8 from:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168 (datasheet).

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168V (datasheet).

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Warning: Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

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MicrocontrollerATmega168
Operating Voltage3-5V
to:
MicrocontrollerATmega168V
Operating Voltage3-5 V
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Memory

The ATmega168 has 16 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 2 KB is used for the bootloader). It has 1 KB of SRAM and 512 bytes of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).

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The Arduino Diecimila can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). For details, see the reference and tutorials.

The ATmega168 on the Arduino Diecimila comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol (reference, C header files).

You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168 through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

Input and Output

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Diecimila can be used as an input or output. They operate at XX volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. Pins 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 can provide PWM output; for details see the analogWrite() function. If anything is connected to pins 0 and 1, it will interfere with the USB communication, preventing new code from being uploaded or other communication with the computer.

The Diecimila has 6 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and some low-level code.

See also the mapping between Arduino pins and ATmega168 ports.

Communication

The LilyPad Arduino has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega168 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An FTDI FT232RL on the board channels this serial communication over USB and the FTDI drivers (included with the Arduino software) provide a virtual com port to software on the computer. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board.

A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the LilyPad's digital pins.

The ATmega168 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus; see the documentation on the Wiring website for details. To use the SPI communication, please see the ATmega168 datasheet.

to:

Like with the Arduino Diecimila, you can bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168V through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

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The LilyPad Arduino can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. Don't power the LilyPad Arduino mini with more than 5 volts, or plug the power in backwards: you'll kill it.

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The LilyPad Arduino is a circle, approximately 50mm (2") in diameter and 3mm (1/8") thick.

Washability

Wash at your own risk--we do ;). We recommend washing garments you build with the LilyPad Arduino by hand with a mild detergent. Drip dry. Make sure you remove your power supply first!

September 22, 2007, at 04:55 PM by Leah Buechley -
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The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega168 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, and a reset button.

to:

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board designed for wearables and e-textiles. It can be sewn to fabric and similarly mounted power supplies, sensors and actuators with conductive thread. The board, very similar to the Arduino Mini, is based on the ATmega168 (datasheet).

September 22, 2007, at 04:44 PM by Leah Buechley -
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September 21, 2007, at 05:35 PM by Leah Buechley -
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LilyPad Arduino

Overview

The LilyPad Arduino is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega168 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, and a reset button.

Schematic

LilyPad.pdf Δ

Summary

MicrocontrollerATmega168
Operating Voltage3-5V
Input Voltage3-5 V
Digital I/O Pins14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins6
DC Current per I/O Pin40 mA
Flash Memory16 KB (of which 2 KB used by bootloader)
SRAM1 KB
EEPROM512 bytes
Clock Speed8 MHz

Memory

The ATmega168 has 16 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 2 KB is used for the bootloader). It has 1 KB of SRAM and 512 bytes of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).

Programming

The Arduino Diecimila can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). For details, see the reference and tutorials.

The ATmega168 on the Arduino Diecimila comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol (reference, C header files).

You can also bypass the bootloader and program the ATmega168 through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

Input and Output

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Diecimila can be used as an input or output. They operate at XX volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. Pins 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 can provide PWM output; for details see the analogWrite() function. If anything is connected to pins 0 and 1, it will interfere with the USB communication, preventing new code from being uploaded or other communication with the computer.

The Diecimila has 6 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and some low-level code.

See also the mapping between Arduino pins and ATmega168 ports.

Communication

The LilyPad Arduino has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega168 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An FTDI FT232RL on the board channels this serial communication over USB and the FTDI drivers (included with the Arduino software) provide a virtual com port to software on the computer. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board.

A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the LilyPad's digital pins.

The ATmega168 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus; see the documentation on the Wiring website for details. To use the SPI communication, please see the ATmega168 datasheet.

Power

The LilyPad Arduino can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply.

If an external power supply is used, it should provide between 3 and 5 volts. This can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.

Physical Characteristics

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