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Language Reference

See the extended reference for more advanced features of the Arduino languages and the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware.

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions. The Arduino language is based on C/C++.

Structure

Control Structures

Further Syntax

  • ; (semicolon)
  • {} (curly braces)
  • // (single line comment)
  • /* */ (multi-line comment)

Arithmetic Operators

Comparison Operators

  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators

  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)

Compound Operators

  • ++ (increment)
  • -- (decrement)
  • += (compound addition)
  • -= (compound subtraction)
  • *= (compound multiplication)
  • /= (compound division)

Variables

Constants

Data Types

Conversion

Functions

Digital I/O

Analog I/O

Advanced I/O

Time

Math

Trigonometry

Random Numbers

Communication


Didn't find something? Check the extended reference or the libraries. Or see the list of community-contributed code.

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Corrections, suggestions, and new documentation should be posted to the Forum.

The text of the Arduino reference is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Code samples in the reference are released into the public domain.

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