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Language Reference

Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structure, values (variables and constants), and functions.

Structure

Control Structures

Further Syntax

Arithmetic Operators

  • = (assignment operator)
  • (addition)
  • - (subtraction)
  • * (multiplication)
  • / (division)
  • % (modulo)

Comparison Operators

  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators

  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)

Pointer Access Operators

Bitwise Operators

  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)

Compound Operators

  • ++ (increment)
  • -- (decrement)
  • += (compound addition)
  • -= (compound subtraction)
  • *= (compound multiplication)
  • /= (compound division)

  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)

Variables

Constants

Data Types

Conversion

Variable Scope & Qualifiers

Utilities

Functions

Digital I/O

Analog I/O

Due only

Advanced I/O

Time

Math

Trigonometry

Random Numbers

Bits and Bytes

External Interrupts

Interrupts

Communication

USB (Leonardo and Due only)

Looking for something else?

See the libraries page for interfacing with particular types of hardware. Try the list of community-contributed code. The Arduino language is based on C/C++. It links against AVR Libc and allows the use of any of its functions; see its user manual for details.

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Corrections, suggestions, and new documentation should be posted to the Forum.

The text of the Arduino reference is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Code samples in the reference are released into the public domain.

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